Interior Terms

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Back (In Architectural Designing)
The inner surface of the wall which is not exposed to weather is termed as back.

Back flap hinges
This type of hinges are used with thin shutters where butt hinges are not used. These hinges are fixed to the back side of the shutters and frame.

Back flap hinges
This type of hinges are used with thin shutters where butt hinges cannot be used.

Balanced footing
It is commonly known as Strap footing. In this the load from the outer column is balanced by the load from the inner column through a cantilever beam, acting through a fulcrum.

A horizontal cantilevered projection including a hand-rail or balustrade to serve as passage or sitting out place.

It is a wooden, metal or masonary vertical member supporting a hand rail.

It usually consists of a row of balusters surmounted by a rail and is provided to perform the function of a fence or guard for the users of the stair-way.

Barge board It is a timber board used to hold the common rafters forming verge.

Barrel bolt
This type of bolt is similar to tower bolt except that the stapples are replaced by a barrel.

Habitable room on the roof with or without toilet / kitchen.

It is the portion of a brick cut accross the width or a brick cut by some fraction of its length.

The lower storey of a building below or partly below ground level.

It is the name given to a narrow strip of wood normally nailed over joints of boards.

Bay Window
A window projecting outward from the walls of a room is termed as a bay window.

It is a rounded or semi-circular moulding provided on the edges of surface of wood.

Beam or R. C. C. Beam
These are the supporting elements. For bigger span and heavy loading conditions or in situations where intermediate walls are not provided, to reduce the span of the floor slab, R.C.C beam and slab construction is adopted.

Beamless slab
It is also known as flat slab, it is a type of construction in which the flooring slab is directly supported on columns without the agency of beams or girders.

Bearing capacity of soil
The maximum load per unit area which the soil or rock can carry without yielding or displacement is termed as the bearing capacity of soil.

Bed Valance
This is a skirt that covers the divan part of a bed from the sides to the floor.

Bifurcated stairs
This type of stair is provided in modern public buildings. In this type of stairs, the flights are so arranged there is a wide flight at the start which is sub-divided into narrow flights at the mid-landing.

Bishop's Sleeve Curtains
Curtains are made longer than required and tied securely, pulled up and flounced over the tied part.

This type of curtain is fixed at the top and can be pulled up from the bottom.

Blocking course
It is a course of stone masonary provided immediately above the cornice to check the tendency of the cornice to overturn and incidentally it adds to its appearance.

This is commonly known as blistering of plaster. This consists the formation of small patches of plaster swelling out beyond the plastered surface.

It is a term applied to the over-lapping of bricks or stones in a wall in alternate courses, to bind the whole wall together.

Bottom Rail
The bottom horizontal member of a casement or sash.

Bound Edge
This is a means of tidying up a raw edge by using bias binding.

Box Pleats
This is a row of fold whose direction alternates. The fabric in the folds can be gathered either in the front or the back depending on the effect to be created.

This is a decorative trim that can be added to curtains, sheets and valances to embellish them.

Breast walls
They are stone walls provided to protect the slopes of cutting in natural ground from the action of weather.

Brick masonry
These walls are also provided to support earth, loose stone, coal etc. The wall acts as one mass to resist the thrust from the backing and is much more stronger than dry stone masonry wall.

Building line
The line upto which the plinth of a building adjoining a street or extension of a street or on a future may lawfully extend.

Bulking of sand
When dry sand comes in contact with moisture, thin film is formed around the particles, which causes them to get apart from each other. This result in increasing the volume of sand. This phenomenon is known as bulking of sand.

This is a thick twisted trimming used as ornamentation.

Butt hinges
This type of hinge is most commonly used for fixing door or window shutters to the frame. The sizes of hinges vary from 50mm long x 37mm wide to 125mm long x 75mm wide.

It is similar to a pier built on the exterior of a wall and properly binded to it. Buttresses are placed at intervals along wall to make it stable for resisting outward.

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